A perk of being an entomologist is being able to better understand the world through the tiny creatures around us.However, this can also be a bit disheartening at times.While vacationing in Florida several years ago, I remember visiting the beach and the first three arthropods I encountered were out of place—a honey bee (originally arrived with Europeans), a millipede from Caribbean islands, and a weevil from Sri Lanka.I doubt any other beachcombers recognized the international gathering amongst the dunes that day.
Seeing the world this way really reinforces the notion that humans play a critical role in the movement of species around the planet. Scientists can make their best predictions about invasive species, but there are plenty of surprises in terms of when and where a given species will turn up.For high priority invasives, designated surveys and inspections are conducted by government agencies to help monitor the situation.The general public can also play an important role in documenting the presence and distribution of invasive plants, insects, and other organisms.In Wisconsin, for example, the Wisconsin First Detector Network (WIFDN) uses a network of citizen scientists and a smartphone app to document invasive species.
In some cases, invasive species are simply stumbled upon.Back in July, I bumped into the first case of the purple carrot seed moth in Dane county while riding some local mountain bike trails. Along these lines, my wife and I were walking our dogs in early November when I spotted some suspicious damage on a row of viburnum shrubs.A closer look revealed the distinctive feeding holes and egg pits of the invasive viburnum leaf beetle—the first evidence of an established infestation in Dane County.
The first established case of the viburnum leaf beetle in Wisconsin occurred in 2014 in northern Milwaukee county and a more detailed account of this species can be found in the original post on this blog.Unfortunately, this invasive beetle has made some dramatic jumps on the map over the last few years—likely due to human movement of infested plant materials.Back in 2017, VLB was detected in Oshkosh (Winnebago Co.). In June of 2019 viburnum leaf beetle was spotted in Hurley (Iron Co.) in far northern Wisconsin and was detected across the border in Ironwood, Michigan shortly thereafter. Other detections in 2019, include Racine and Walworth counties.
The viburnum leaf beetle can cause significant damage to viburnum shrubs and is already wreaking havoc in the greater Milwaukee area.Viburnums, including American cranberrybush viburnum, arrowwood viburnum, and others are widely distributed in both urban and natural settings, meaning that Wisconsinites now need to keep an eye out for this damaging insect in new parts of the state.
To learn more about the appearance, damage, and biology of the viburnum leaf beetle, visit the original post and this factsheet.
In this post, we’re continuing to count down the University of Wisconsin Insect Diagnostic Lab’s top arthropod trends of 2018. This is the second half of a two part series; the first half can be found here.
5) White-Lined and Other Sphinx Moths:
The white-lined sphinx moth (Hyleslineata) can be a common species, so encountering one of the 3 inch long hornworm caterpillars isn’t unusual. However, these caterpillars can also be encountered in massive road-traversing hordes if the conditions are just right. From midsummer onwards, large numbers of these caterpillars were observed around the state—in some cases by the tens of thousands. If you didn’t spot any of the caterpillars themselves, you might have encountered the large adult moths with their hummingbird-like behaviour in late summer. Several other sphinx moths species also had a strong presence in 2018, such as the clearwing hummingbird moths and the tobacco and tomato hornworm caterpillars which can regularly be encountered in gardens as they munch away on tomato and pepper plants.
Sawflies, the caterpillar copycats of the insect world, are a diverse group, so they’re always present to some extent. Last year saw an unexpected abundance of two particular types in Wisconsin—the dogwood sawfly and the non-native Monostegia abdominalis, which feeds on creeping Jenny and related plants from the loosestrife group (Lysimachia species). While sawflies are plant feeders, dogwood sawflies can also damage the soft wood of a home’s siding or trim when these insects excavate small chambers to pupate in. The UW Insect Diagnostic Lab saw a distinct bump in reports of wood damage from the dogwood sawfly last year.
True armyworms (Mythimna unipuncta) can be a dynamic and sporadic pest in the Midwest. This species doesn’t survive the cold winters of our area, so adult armyworm moths must invade from the south each spring. Depending on national weather patterns, the arrival of the adult moths can vary significantly from year to year. If an early mass arrival is followed by abundant food and ideal conditions for the ensuing caterpillars, large populations can result. Once they’ve arrived, true armyworms can go through 2-3 generations in the state and this second generation of caterpillars made an alarming appearance in mid-to-late July. Under the conditions last summer, massive hordes of these caterpillars decimated crop fields before marching across roads by the tens or hundreds of thousands to look for their next meal. In some cases, that next meal included turfgrass, meaning that some Wisconsinites came home from work to biblical hordes of caterpillars and half-eaten lawns in late July.
2) Monarch Butterflies:
Much to the delight of fans and conservationists, the iconic monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) appeared to have a banner year in the Midwest in 2018. Reports and observations of high numbers of monarchs poured into the Insect Diagnostic Lab during the summer months. As comforting as these reports were, the butterflies still faced a perilous 2,000 mile journey to reach their overwintering grounds in Mexico. The most consistent measurement of the eastern monarch population comes from estimating the area occupied by the densely-packed overwintering butterflies. In late January the latest count was released with encouraging news—the eastern monarch population is up 144% over last year and is estimated to be the largest in over a decade. In contrast, the western monarch population overwinters in southern California and has recently dipped to alarmingly low numbers. Regardless of the winter assessments, monarchs face tough challenges and Wisconsinites are encouraged to help conserve this iconic species. The Wisconsin Monarch Collaborative recently launched a website with resources for those wishing to join the effort.
1) Floodwater Mosquitoes:
Mosquitoes snagged the top spot on 2018’s list for good reason. The upper Great Lakes region is home to over 60 different mosquito species, but one subset—the “floodwater” mosquitoes—drove the storyline last year and impacted outdoor activities through much of the spring and summer months. Mosquitoes in this group, such as the inland floodwater mosquito (Aedes vexans), flourish when heavy rains come. Last year’s mosquito season kicked off in force with a batch of pesky and persistent floodwater mosquitoes just before Memorial Day weekend. Mosquito monitoring traps in southern Wisconsin captured record numbers of mosquitoes shortly thereafter. Later in the year, the Midwest experienced an unprecedented series of severe rainstorms, setting the stage for an encore performance of these mosquitoes. It was this second explosion of mosquitoes that caught the attention of anyone trying to enjoy the outdoors in late summer—a time of the year when mosquitoes are typically winding down in the state.
Author’s Note: Original post updated in January, 2019 due to a confirmed report in Waupaca Co. and suspected report in Oneida Co.
One of the most concerning invasive insects to appear in Wisconsin in the last decade is the brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys).This Asian species delivers a double-whammy of not only damaging crops and other plants, but also being a significant nuisance when it sneaks into buildings in the fall. Since its initial detection in the state in 2010, populations of this insect have built up slowly but steadily.
What’s the current status of BMSB in Wisconsin?
As of late 2018, 28 counties have confirmed reports of the brown marmorated stink bug and a handful of other countries have suspected sightings.This insect has a strong foothold in the state and was confirmed in eight new counties in 2018 alone—Eau Claire, Jackson, La Crosse, Marquette, Monroe, Richland, Trempealeau, and Waupaca counties.
Two core areas currently stand out for brown marmorated stink bug activity in Wisconsin: the Highway 41 corridor from Fond du Lac up to Green Bay and southern Wisconsin from Dane and Rock Counties east to the Milwaukee metro area.These two areas have the longest history of BMSB in the state and account for the majority of reports thus far.
Much of the state has yet to encounter this insect or truly experience its impacts.When the brown marmorated stink bug is first detected in an area, there’s a proverbial “calm before the storm”. The pattern observed in the state thus far has been a few “quiet” years where low initial populations of this insect result in only a few sightings annually. However, after a few years in a given area, BMSB populations build up to the point where nuisance problems around structures are noted and reports of potential plant damage begin to trickle in.
What’s the Outlook for BMSB?
Unfortunately, Wisconsin has yet to see the full impact of this invasive insect.Observations over the last few years have found that BMSB is able to survive our winters and reproduce in the state, so this adaptable pest will most likely continue to build its numbers in the coming years.
Over time, the brown marmorated stink bug is likely to emerge as one of the top structure-invading pests in the state alongside the likes of boxelder bugs and multicolored Asian lady beetles.In the eastern US, where BMSB has been established for over a decade in spots, problems can be significant. In some cases these malodorous insects have been documented invading homes by the tens of thousands.
While widespread crop damage has not yet been observed in Wisconsin, it may only be a matter of time as population of this insect continue to build in the state.Agricultural problems have also been significant in the eastern US, giving us a glimpse into what could potentially happen in coming years. For example, brown marmorated stink bug caused $37 million dollars in losses to apples in the mid-Atlantic states in 2010 alone.
Having been detected in Portage County in 2017, brown marmorated stink bug may soon start to pose a threat to vegetable production in central Wisconsin.Similarly, specimens confirmed from Door County in 2017 are forcing fruit growers in that part of the state to keep a close watch on their orchards and vineyards.With the recent detection of BMSB in several western Wisconsin counties, we’ll likely see BMSB populations slowly build in that part of the state over the next few years as well.
As is typical in a given year, Wisconsin sees a few new invasive species in the state each year. In 2016, one of the surprises was the arrival of the “two banded Japanese weevil” (Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus), often simply called the “Japanese weevil”. Weevils themselves are technically a type of beetle from the hyper-diverse family Curculionidae, which contains a plethora of weevils, curculios, and multitudes of bark beetles. When talking to the public, it’s amazing how often the Japanese beetles feeding on landscape plants during the summer are mixed up with the Asian lady beetles (Harmonia axyridis), which invade homes in the fall. Given the name of this new “Japanese weevil”, I’m expecting this creature to confuse the situation even more.
What is the Japanese Weevil?
The Japanese weevil (P. bifasciatus) is a non-native beetle that feeds on a wide variety of landscape plants, particularly shrubs. Adult Japanese weevils are ~ ¼” long with a gray or brownish, pear-shaped body with black bands across the wing covers (elytra). The pale larvae (grubs) live in the soil and feed on roots of suitable host plants. We haven’t had this pest in Wisconsin long enough to fully understand the local life cycle, but given the pattern in other states, this insect will most likely complete one generation per year, with adult presence and feeding damage occurring during the summer from late June through August.
Where’s the Japanese weevil from?
Very similar to the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica), the Japanese weevil is native to Japan and first popped up in the US in 1914, via the transport of infested nursery stock. Like the Japanese beetle, the Japanese weevil feeds on a wide range of landscape plants. When it first showed up in Wisconsin in 2016, the Japanese weevil was found on a variety of ornamental plants in Madison, WI. How this species got to Wisconsin remains a mystery, but the movement of infested potted plants is the most likely explanation, as this insect is not capable of flight. While the Japanese beetle is common across many parts of eastern North America, the Japanese weevil has a much more scattered distribution and can be found primarily in the Mid-Atlantic region with scattered cases in the Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin and Oklahoma.
What does this insect mean for Wisconsin?
Luckily, it seems that the Japanese weevil may not be nearly as big of a threat to landscape plants as the Japanese beetle. When lots of Japanese beetles are present, entire trees can have their leaves nibbled into a lace-like skeleton. In contrast, when the Japanese weevil feeds, it tends to cut notches out of the edges of leaves. This damage can resemble the feeding of many caterpillar species, and healthy plants should be able to tolerate the feeding. Reports from other states suggest that this insect unlikely to cause very severe damage.
Think you’ve found the Japanese weevil?
If you come across any beetles in Wisconsin feeding on landscape plants that resemble the Japanese weevil, send digital images and/or physical specimens to the UW Insect Diagnostic Lab for confirmation, so we can track this new arrival in the state.
In this post, we’re continuing to count-down 2015’s top insect trends in the state. This is the final post in a three part series. Part I (2015’s diagnostic lab statistics) can be found here and Part II (Top Insect Trends Numbers 10-6) can be found here.
With all the headlines about bees, it’s not surprising to see pollinators in the top insect stories again in 2015. Similar to other years in the recent past, honeybees and other pollinators have been facing declines. Unfortunately, Wisconsin saw some of the highest honeybee losses in the country, with over 60% colony loss during the 2014-2015 period. Some good news over the past year has been the development and release of pollinator protection plans. A federal pollinator protection plan was released in May with the goals of reducing honeybee losses, increasing the population of Monarch butterflies, and increasing pollinator habitat. In addition, a Wisconsin pollinator protection plan was announced in 2015, and was just released in January of 2016. Due to the recent declines and their importance to agriculture in the state and nation, pollinators will continue to be in the spotlight in the future.
4) Spring caterpillars
An unexpected insect trend in the spring of 2015 was the surprising abundance of a number of caterpillar species feeding on plants in the landscape. Caterpillar species, such as the humped green fruitworm, speckled green fruitworm, eastern tent caterpillar, forest tent caterpillar, gypsy moth caterpillar, and the euonymous caterpillar are typically present to some extent, although their numbers have been low the past few years. For a number of potential reasons, these species had a great spring and during a period in May and June, caterpillars made up roughly 30% of the cases coming in to the diagnostic lab. Weather patterns (i.e., rainy weather) and natural predators/parasites/diseases can have significant impacts on caterpillar populations each year, so it’ll be interesting to see if we’re faced with a plethora of caterpillars again in 2016. Additional details of this story were featured in a blog post last June.
3) Viburnum Leaf Beetle
In terms of a new emerging pest with the potential to impact a commonly planted landscape shrub, Viburnum Leaf Beetle is near the top of the list. As of late 2014, we only knew of a single infested viburnum bush in northern Milwaukee County, which raised the question: is the infestation small enough to contain and/or eradicate? Some ground truthing this past spring identified many new infestations in SE Wisconsin, in many cases miles from the original site. At the moment, the viburnum leaf beetle seems to be centered around the four county area where Milwaukee, Waukesha, Washington, and Ozaukee counties meet. While this insect only feeds on viburnums (and related plants like Arrowwood), the damage can be significant. It may be some time before this pest spreads elsewhere in the state, but if you have viburnum plants in your yard in SE Wisconsin, be weary! Additional details of this case were featured in a post last June.
2) Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
Populations of the invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug increased dramatically in 2015 and this insect takes the overall #2 spot in this list (up from #8 last year). This invasive species was first spotted in the state in 2010, and each year a handful of lone adults have been found in Wisconsin. In the fall of 2015, we had more sightings of BMSB (30+), than in the past 5 years combined! (Spoiler: this trend has continued into early 2016) At this point, the “hot spots” in the state are: Dane County, the greater Milwaukee area, and the Fox River Valley. In addition to being an indoor nuisance pest, BMSB can also feed on and damage a wide variety of plants in home gardens, agricultural fields and orchards. In other places in the country, the first reports of plant damage have typically been noted ~3-5 years after the initial detection of this species. With that said, 2016 could be the year that BMSB really takes off and starts wreaking havoc for gardeners and agricultural growers alike. Additional details of this case can be found in this post from last October.
1) Magnolia Scale
While scale insects have already been mentioned in the “sucking insects” section (#9 on the list), one species in particular, the Magnolia scale (Neolecanium cornuparvum), seemed to stand out amongst all other insects in 2015. This species is often present in low numbers in the state, but the conditions must have been perfect for their populations to explode last year. During the months of June and July, reports of Magnolia scale were coming in on almost a daily basis. Being one of the unusual scale insects, Magnolia scale adults look more like a fungus than an insect (note the whitish blobs in the image below). Not only did this bizarre looking species pummel Magnolia shrubs and trees in many parts of the state, but the honeydew produced by these insects rained down below, attracting ants and yellowjackets and leading to the growth of unsightly black sooty mold. A number of predators, parasites, and diseases typically keep Magnolia scale in check, but with the extremely high infestations noted last year, it’s likely that we’ll continue to see some Magnolia scale activity into 2016. If you experienced magnolia scales first hand, there’s a helpful factsheet available here.