In a given year at the UW Insect Diagnostic Lab, I typically document 2-3 new, non-native, potentially-invasive insects in Wisconsin. In some cases, these species make an appearance only to fade into the background with little impact, while other exotics become heavy-hitting invasive pests (e.g., emerald ash borer and gypsy moth). The latest non-native pest to make an appearance in the state is the tiny “purple carrot seed moth” (Depressaria depressana) and its impacts are not yet fully known. This species has a wide native range and can be found from western Europe through Russia to China. It was first documented in North America in 2008 and is so new that few images exist and it’s not included in the common caterpillar and moth field guides on the market.
In the last decade, the purple carrot seed moth has been documented in many locations in southern Canada and the northeastern US and has also been spotted in a few scattered locations in Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois. In mid-July of 2018, two reports came into the UW Insect Diagnostic Lab in rapid succession—Kewaunee and Dodge counties in Wisconsin. These cases were confirmed through images and caterpillar specimens that were reared to adult moths. After discussing the purple carrot seed moth on a recent episode of Wisconsin Public Radio’s The Larry Meiller Show, several additional suspected cases were reported in the state: Racine (Racine Co.), Random Lake (Sheboygan Co.), Burnett (Dodge Co.), and Franklin (Milwaukee Co.).
These insects get their name due to their association with flowers (umbels) of plants in the carrot family (Umbelliferae). The caterpillars of the purple carrot seed moth are small (3/8 inch long when mature), but dozens can feed on a single umbel. The caterpillars are dark green or reddish with many conspicuous white spots on their bodies. In addition to feeding on the flowers, the caterpillars tie together floral parts with silken webbing, which can make herbs like dill unusable. Eventually the caterpillars pupate within the webbing and emerge as adult moths a short time later. The adult moths are 3/8 inch long with a pale patch near the head; their purplish-grey wings are folded back along the body when not flying.
The impacts of this non-native insect are not fully known for our area. The reports of plant damage in Wisconsin thus far have only been on dill. Due to the plant parts attacked (flowers), the impact on carrots, celery, and parsnip crops will likely be minor. The biggest impacts would be expected with umbelliferous crops commonly grown for seeds: dill, fennel, and coriander. Luckily, several organic control products may offer help on herbs: insecticidal soap and Neem oil are two low-impact products expected to help control this pest, if needed. Cutting out and destroying infested flower heads may be another helpful tactic.
Because this pest is “new” in Wisconsin, if you believe you’ve found it on dill or other plants from the carrot family, please snap some pictures and contact me to help document this species in the state.
If you’d like to learn more about this insect and its potential impacts check out this video through the Wisconsin First Detector Network.
June 2020 Update: A current distribution of known PCSM sightings can be found below. If you encounter this insect this summer in Wisconsin, feel free to let me know, so I can better keep track of its activity in the state. —PJ